Caroline joined Carrig in October 2018 as the Head of Research and her work focuses on climate change mitigation and adaptation for the historic built environment. Caroline holds a Doctorate in Architecture and a Masters of Science in Architectural Conservation from the University of Edinburgh and is knowledgeable on international policies and national regulations that influence conservation practice in Ireland, Europe and the United States. Caroline has also completed the CPD Certificate in Hygrothermal Risk Assessment from Technological University Dublin. Caroline’s doctoral thesis, Modern Movement Conservation: International Principles and National Policies in Great Britain and the United States of America (2017), documented how the experimental nature of modernist architectural design, its controversial reception and an increased focus on energy efficiency over the past four decades has challenged and altered conservation policy, principles and practice. The general unpopularity of modernist architecture, especially brutalist architecture, has meant the survival of these buildings (even protected ones) has often depended largely upon sustainability arguments, which had previously never been a requirement for heritage.